Migraine prevalence rates are similar and stable in European countries and in the United States.13 In the United States, according to one study, 17.6% of women and 6% of men had had one migraine attack in the previous year.14 A second study 10 years later had similar prevalence estimates (Fig. 56-1).15 Migraine prevalence varies by age, gender, race, and income. Before puberty, migraine prevalence is approximately 4%.16 After puberty, the prevalence increases more rapidly in girls than in boys. It increases until approximately age 40, then declines. The prevalence is lowest among Asian-Americans, intermediate among African-Americans, and highest among white persons.16 In the United States, migraine prevalence decreases as household income increases.14,16,17
Migraine with aura, or "classic migraine", usually involves migraine headaches accompanied by an aura. Less commonly, an aura can occur without a headache, or with a nonmigraine headache. Two other varieties are familial hemiplegic migraine and sporadic hemiplegic migraine, in which a person has migraines with aura and with accompanying motor weakness. If a close relative has had the same condition, it is called "familial", otherwise it is called "sporadic". Another variety is basilar-type migraine, where a headache and aura are accompanied by difficulty speaking, world spinning, ringing in ears, or a number of other brainstem-related symptoms, but not motor weakness. This type was initially believed to be due to spasms of the basilar artery, the artery that supplies the brainstem. Now that this mechanism is not believed to be primary, the symptomatic term migraine with brainstem aura (MBA) is preferred.[37]
Some migraine medicines should not be used when you are pregnant because they can cause birth defects and other problems. This includes over-the-counter medicines, such as aspirin and ibuprofen. Talk with your doctor if migraine is a problem while you are pregnant or if you are planning to become pregnant. Your doctor might suggest a medicine that will help you and that is safe during pregnancy. Home treatment methods, such as doing relaxation exercises and using cold packs, also might help ease your pain. The good news is that for most women migraines improve or stop from about the third month of the pregnancy.

Blue light is progressively minimised from level 100 down to 0 along the blue light filter bar, while colour temperature remains optimised. To accomplish this we use a RGB 3-axis adjustment process to provide a smoother blue light filter transition and maintain the correct colour balance so that there is no colour distortion. Simply put, when we cut back the colour blue, we also simultaneously adjust the red and green tint on the RGB scale.


Triptans, which work by balancing the chemicals in the brain. Examples include sumatriptan (Imitrex®), rizatriptan (Maxalt®), zolmitriptan (Zomig®), almotriptan (Axert®), eletriptan (Relpax®), naratriptan (Amerge®), and frovatriptan (Frova®). Triptans can come as tablets that you swallow, tablets that dissolve on your tongue, nasal sprays, and as a shot. They should not be used if you have heart disease or high blood pressure.
Your doctor will want to know about those problems and can try to help. Your doctor also may want you to keep a headache diary. By keeping track of your headaches, you may be able to figure out what triggers them. Answer all the questions in the diary each time you have a headache. The information will help your doctor figure out the best treatment.
In some instances parenteral therapy may be administered in the home if you have sufficient support to assist you with administration of the parenteral therapy. Parenteral treatment typically includes rehydration with saline solution and some individuals will respond to this alone. In other cases parenteral medication is required. Parenteral antiemetics should be trialled first. If you fail to achieve an adequate response with rehydration and antiemetics, you may need to go to an emergency department for treatment with opioids or other drugs.
However, if you don't have these keys, or they're not working, you can adjust brightness in Windows. To reach the advanced display settings you’ll need to use Control Panel rather than the standard Settings app in Windows 10. However, a handy shortcut is to right-click on the Start button (the Windows icon) and choose Power Options. Then click Additional power settings. 
Providing appropriate medical treatment. The treatment depends on the type and severity of the illness. Treatment of upper extremity MSDs may involve rest, immobilizing the affected area, drugs, exercise, heat and cold, and local injections of anti-inflammatory agents. More aggressive treatment, such as surgery, may be necessary in cases of carpal tunnel syndrome or other disorders involving nerve entrapment.
The UK Display Screen Equipment Regulations 1992 require employers to plan working routines so that a user's "daily work upon display screen equipment is periodically interrupted by such breaks or changes of activity [so] as to reduce their workload at that equipment". Ideally this should be achieved via a mix of screen-based and non-screen based work. In practice today this can prove problematic now that many of the forms of non-screen work referred to in the commentary to the Regulations (including filing and handling mail) have since 1992 for many workers also become computer-based. Whilst there is no requirement to plan breaks (as opposed to planning working routines), in practice the planning of scheduled breaks is becoming more of a necessity for many categories of display screen equipment user.

Diagnosis of migraine headaches is made using the International Headache Society criteria, and the diagnosis is based on an individual’s description of their headaches. To exclude other headache types the doctor will ask about comorbid conditions or other factors (e.g. medication use) which may influence the medications which can be used to treat the headache. For example, beta blockers should not be used to treat asthmatic individuals with migraines, while valproate (for example, sold as Valpro and Epilim) may be inappropriate for an individual who is attempting to lose weight.
A healthy computer is a happy computer... But how do you know if you're doing everything you can to keep your computer running at peak performance? Here's how you find out what slows down a computer, how to run a PC "health check" to make sure your machine is running smoothly, and how to address some of the problems that can make your computer slow.
The doctor will work with you to develop an individual management plan. Where migraine triggers are identifiable, strategies for avoiding the triggers should be incorporated into the management plan. The frequency and characteristics (particularly the experience of vomiting) of headache symptoms should be considered when determining the most appropriate medications, as should your track record using medications for migraine management (e.g. which medicines were and were not effective). Your financial situation may also be relevant as the use of some medications is limited due to cost.
Migraine with aura, or "classic migraine", usually involves migraine headaches accompanied by an aura. Less commonly, an aura can occur without a headache, or with a nonmigraine headache. Two other varieties are familial hemiplegic migraine and sporadic hemiplegic migraine, in which a person has migraines with aura and with accompanying motor weakness. If a close relative has had the same condition, it is called "familial", otherwise it is called "sporadic". Another variety is basilar-type migraine, where a headache and aura are accompanied by difficulty speaking, world spinning, ringing in ears, or a number of other brainstem-related symptoms, but not motor weakness. This type was initially believed to be due to spasms of the basilar artery, the artery that supplies the brainstem. Now that this mechanism is not believed to be primary, the symptomatic term migraine with brainstem aura (MBA) is preferred.[37]

Keep track of when migraines occur by using a headache diary or log to track pain levels, triggers, and symptoms. This can help identify patterns that precede a migraine, as well as help identify factors that contribute to the development of the headache. Once these contributing factors are known, lifestyle modifications can lessen their impact. These modifications may include:

Nausea and vomiting can be as troubling as the headache itself. If you only have nausea, you may be able to take your usual migraine medications. Vomiting, though, can prevent you from being able to take pills or keep them in your body long enough to be absorbed. If you have to delay taking migraine medication, your migraine is likely to become more severe.
Following the risk assessment staff - including post graduate students - should discuss any identified problems with their manager and / or Departmental Safety Officer (DSO).  If the person is experiencing significant musculoskeletal problems a referral to Occupational Health for an assessment should be arranged to ensure necessary medical advice in relation to the presenting problem as well as the work environment, plus or minus treatment, is given.  Where appropriate an Occupational Health Adviser (OHA) may visit the workplace to observe the individual's work activities and make recommendations with regards any necessary workplace modifications e.g. posture and / or work environment, and discuss these with the employee and their supervisor.

Decrease the need to descale your super-automatic espresso machine by installing this Philips Saeco AquaClean filter. Its ion-exchange technology naturally prevents calcium buildup, letting you make up to 5,000 cups of pure coffee before you get notified with an alarm. The micro-porous design of this Philips Saeco AquaClean filter blocks small particles.
Beta blockers are the mainstay of migraine prophylaxis. Evidence suggests selective beta blockers are less effective than broad spectrum beta blockers. Sustained release formulas enable once-daily dosing and may be prescribed to make it easier for you to take your medications according to the correct schedule. Amongst beta blocking agents the best evidence is for propranolol (e.g. Deralin, Inderal) although there is no evidence regarding the long term use of this drug in migraine prophylaxis. Metoprolol (e.g. Minax or Lopresor) or atenolol (e.g. Tensig or Noten) are other beta blockers which may be used to treat migraine. Always take the dose of medication prescribed by your doctor at the correct time each day to optimise the effectiveness in preventing migraine.
The studies are promising. In 2017, Ostrin and her team conducted one to see if blue-light-blocking glasses affected sleep. She had subjects wear the glasses for two weeks from about 8 P.M. until they went to bed. “We measured their melatonin levels at nighttime and in the morning, before and after they wore the glasses at night,” Ostrin says. After two weeks, she and her team found that the subjects’ nighttime melatonin levels had increased by about 58 percent. “Which is huge,” she says. “We also found that our subjects, on average, slept for an extra 24 minutes. Subjectively, all of the subjects—every single one—said they slept better and woke up feeling more rested.”
If an individual experiences frequent headaches, or if the headaches routinely last for several days, then preventive medications may be indicated. These may be prescribed on a daily basis in an effort to decrease the frequency, severity, and duration of migraine headaches. There are many different medications which have been shown to be effective in this role, including:
Antidepressants may be used for migraine prophylaxis; however the doses prescribed are much lower than when these medicines are used to treat depression. The best evidence is for amitriptyline (e.g. Endep, Tryptanol). There is also some evidence that nortriptyline is effective and it may be trialled if amitriptyline is not tolerated. The doctor will determine the correct dose and advise you how and when to take the medication. The doctor may change the dose over time. Always take the dose prescribed by your doctor. If you think the dose is too high or too low, talk to your doctor before changing the dose.

Migraines typically present with self-limited, recurrent severe headache associated with autonomic symptoms.[5][21] About 15–30% of people with migraines experience migraines with an aura[10][22] and those who have migraines with aura also frequently have migraines without aura.[23] The severity of the pain, duration of the headache, and frequency of attacks are variable.[5] A migraine lasting longer than 72 hours is termed status migrainosus.[24] There are four possible phases to a migraine, although not all the phases are necessarily experienced:[12]
Merck & Co., Inc., Kenilworth, NJ, USA is a global healthcare leader working to help the world be well. From developing new therapies that treat and prevent disease to helping people in need, we are committed to improving health and well-being around the world. The Merck Manual was first published in 1899 as a service to the community. The legacy of this great resource continues as the Merck Manual in the US and Canada and the MSD Manual outside of North America. Learn more about our commitment to Global Medical Knowledge.

It’s not the light's color spectrum that affects sleep; it’s its brightness. Although the Night Shift blue light filter was making the screen color warmer, it didn't tone down its intensity, which was precisely the cause of sleep disruption. As a result, the blue light filter was virtually useless in helping users restore their natural sleep patterns.
Taking breaks from staring at screens as well as limiting use of these devices in the evening hours is a good idea, but installing an application that tints your screen to neutralize the blue light is another fast and effective option you have to instantly reduce exposure to blue light. It can make a big difference when you can't afford to take too many breaks or when you need to use your devices during the evening hours.
Out of the three, Felix Gray’s glasses were the Goldilocks option. The company bakes a blue-light-filtering solution into each of its frames to prevent any blue-light-filtering coating from wearing off or chipping. The frames are also coated with anti-glare protection, which I found effective when staring at bright screens. I’d choose these for workday wear, not too early in the morning and not too late at night. In terms of fit, they were the most comfortable—sometimes I forgot I had them on. Like Gunnar and Zenni, Felix Gray offers prescription frames for daily wear.

This refers to the amount of time a person holds a static position to perform a given task. The longer the same muscle or muscle group is used, the greater the likelihood of both localized and general fatigue. This is why rest breaks or changing tasks is so important to decrease prolonged static postures and thereby reduce the risk of injury. Also important is the use of position aides—such as foot rests, copy holders, adjustable chairs, and keyboard trays—to minimize fatigue to muscle groups not directly involved in the computer work activity.
Rarely, an aura occurs without a subsequent headache.[31] This is known as an acephalgic migraine or silent migraine; however, it is difficult to assess the frequency of such cases because people who do not experience symptoms severe enough to seek treatment may not realize that anything unusual is happening to them and pass it off without reporting any problems.
In 2010, a team of researchers found a common mutation in the gene TRESK which contains instructions for a certain  potassium ion channel.  Potassium channels are important for keeping a nerve cell at rest and mutations in them can lead to overactive cells that respond to much lower levels of pain.  Large genetic analyses similar to the one used to identify TRESK will most likely lead to the identification of a number of other genes linked to migraine.
While many treatments for migraines have been attempted, it was not until 1868 that use of a substance which eventually turned out to be effective began.[140] This substance was the fungus ergot from which ergotamine was isolated in 1918.[145] Methysergide was developed in 1959 and the first triptan, sumatriptan, was developed in 1988.[145] During the 20th century with better study design effective preventative measures were found and confirmed.[140]
Unlike Macs, PCs are more prone to issues, from virus and malware infections to littered system junks and many other problems. Over time, you'll notice your PC starts to slow down. By getting a PC health check tool, you'll get an accurate report on what is causing the problems so you can take actions to fix them. Either it's a security software that helps eliminate external threats or a cleanup utility that helps fix various system issues, by using them you'll be more likely to bring life back to your PC and make your computer faster and more efficient.
The pain is frequently accompanied by nausea, vomiting, sensitivity to light, sensitivity to sound, sensitivity to smells, fatigue and irritability.[2] In a basilar migraine, a migraine with neurological symptoms related to the brain stem or with neurological symptoms on both sides of the body,[37] common effects include a sense of the world spinning, light-headedness, and confusion.[2] Nausea occurs in almost 90% of people, and vomiting occurs in about one-third.[38] Many thus seek a dark and quiet room.[38] Other symptoms may include blurred vision, nasal stuffiness, diarrhea, frequent urination, pallor, or sweating.[39] Swelling or tenderness of the scalp may occur as can neck stiffness.[39] Associated symptoms are less common in the elderly.[40]
Single gene disorders that result in migraines are rare.[45] One of these is known as familial hemiplegic migraine, a type of migraine with aura, which is inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion.[48][49] Four genes have been shown to be involved in familial hemiplegic migraine.[50] Three of these genes are involved in ion transport.[50] The fourth is an axonal protein associated with the exocytosis complex.[50] Another genetic disorder associated with migraine is CADASIL syndrome or cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy.[2] One meta-analysis found a protective effect from an angiotensin converting enzyme polymorphisms on migraine.[51] The TRPM8 gene, which encodes for a cation channel, has been linked to migraines.[52]
To minimise the risk of habituation, the doctor may recommend a two-step medication regime for managing migraine episodes. This usually involves administering a simple analgesic at the first sign of migraine headache. A more potent analgesic should only be taken if the headache has not resolved within 2 hours. You will probably learn to predict which headaches will progress to migraines, and with experience may be able to recognise the need for more potent analgesics and implement them earlier in the course of a migraine.
Beyond these reductionist approaches to migraine, other lines of research pertinent to epidemiologic mechanisms center on exploring common migraine comorbidities and psychologic variables that predict response to treatment. Foremost among these comorbidities are insomnia, obesity, depression, and anxiety, and small trials targeting these comorbidities in treatment to assess effects on migraine have begun to appear and inform understanding of shared pathophysiology. Other treatment studies have confirmed the efficacy of behavioral (nonpharmacologic) migraine interventions, particularly in combination with pharmacotherapy. The mechanism of action of these behavioral interventions is not firmly established, but current thinking is that these treatments work principally through enhancing perceptions of self-efficacy and implementation of lifestyle skills that help prevent migraine attacks. These studies do not imply that migraine is a psychologic condition, but instead that it is amenable to behavior change interventions, as are so many other chronic medical conditions.
In a migraine, pulsating or throbbing pain is usually felt on one side of the head, but it may occur on both sides. The pain may be moderate but is often severe and incapacitating. Physical activity, bright light, loud noises, and certain odors may make the headache worse. This increased sensitivity makes many people retreat to a dark, quiet room, lie down, and sleep if possible. Typically, migraines subside during sleep.

The studies are promising. In 2017, Ostrin and her team conducted one to see if blue-light-blocking glasses affected sleep. She had subjects wear the glasses for two weeks from about 8 P.M. until they went to bed. “We measured their melatonin levels at nighttime and in the morning, before and after they wore the glasses at night,” Ostrin says. After two weeks, she and her team found that the subjects’ nighttime melatonin levels had increased by about 58 percent. “Which is huge,” she says. “We also found that our subjects, on average, slept for an extra 24 minutes. Subjectively, all of the subjects—every single one—said they slept better and woke up feeling more rested.”

Researchers believe that migraine is the result of fundamental neurological abnormalities caused by genetic mutations at work in the brain. New models are aiding scientists in studying the basic science involved in the biological cascade, genetic components and mechanisms of migraine. Understanding the causes of migraine as well as the events that effect them will give researchers the opportunity to develop and test drugs that could be more targeted to preventing or interrupting attacks entirely.  Therapies currently being tested for their effectiveness in treating migraine include magnesium, coenzyme Q10, vitamin B12, riboflavin, fever-few, and butterbur.   
Aside from the severe head pain that generally has throbbing or pulsating peaks, often on one side of the head, the most common symptom migraine sufferers are hit with is nausea and vomiting. Nausea tends to impact about 80 percent of people who experience migraines, while about half succumb to vomiting — both generally towards the latter end of the migraine attack. Other migraine symptoms include a sensitivity to light or sound called photophobia and phonophobia, respectively, as well as clamminess and light-headedness.
Dr. Tucker has held Exec­u­tive Lead­er­ship posi­tions as the Army Med­ical Department(AMEDD) Deputy CIO for Strat­egy; Joint Med­ical Infor­ma­tion Sys­tems (JMIS) Chief Sys­tem Archi­tect and Direc­tor, Devel­op­ment & Com­mon Ser­vices; Defense Health Infor­ma­tion Man­age­ment Sys­tem (DHIMS) Assis­tant Pro­gram Man­ager; and DHIMS Chief Tech­nol­ogy Offi­cer. Through his var­i­ous posi­tions, he has remained a practicing clinician specializing in occupational health and preventive medicine now serving as a Red Cross Volunteer. Dr Tucker is also an educator having served as adjunct assistant professor of bioinformatics at the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences. He continues to teach as adjunct assistant professor at Central Michigan University and Park University for public health and health informatics at University of Maryland University College.

When you first turn the feature on, you’ll notice the color shift immediately. After a while, your eyes will adjust to the change and it should be less intrusive. By reducing the amount of blue light, however, the Night light feature will then be limiting the impact of using your Windows 10 PC late at night — you could find it easier to get to sleep, and your sleep might be deeper and more restful.

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